Generally, having a boy is what many people want. In some parts of the world, particularly in the Southeastern part of Nigeria, when the wife keeps having girls, she is blamed. Many have opted for another woman hoping that a boy would come who will be the crown prince to inherit the father’s estate.
Over the last 12 years, we have performed PGD (diagnosis) and PGS (screening), and most recently PGT, at the Medical Art Center for hundreds of couples for screening abnormal chromosome, family balancing, and sickle cell screening. Pre-implantation Genetic Testing (PGT) is the term now used to classify both PGD and PGS. Our experience showed that the Y chromosome of the male partner that determines the male sex of the baby is not a done deal. A sperm collection presented by the male partner used for fertilisation of the eggs from the female partner may end after PGT to contain all-female embryos. When such men went through detoxification (body cleansing) and administered orthomolecular supplements, a repeat IVF and PGT can now result in male embryos’, which results in male pregnancies and delivery of a boy when transferred to the partner.
There are three types of PGT divided into three sections:
PGT-M is for monogenic disorders. These tests for single-gene diseases may or may not be sex-linked. A child inherits X-linked conditions from a mother who is a carrier, and they are transmitted through an abnormal X chromosome to boys who do not receive the father’s normal X chromosome. Because the X chromosome is transferred down through the mother to the offspring/embryos, affected men produce unaffected sons, but their daughters have a 50% chance of being carriers if the mother is healthy. Sex-linked recessive disorders include:
- Fragile X syndrome.
- Most neuromuscular dystrophies (about nine hundred neuromuscular dystrophies are currently identified).
- Hundreds of other diseases.
PGT-M has been used to also practice sex selection for family balancing only, a service readily available at the Medical Art Center for couples looking forward to having a balanced family locally and internationally. The Y chromosome is the determining factor for sex. Men have XY as their sex-determining chromosomes, while women have XX as theirs. A man’s sperm, therefore, either carries the X or Y chromosome, while a woman’s egg always carries an X chromosome. Research has shown no even distribution of the X and Y chromosomes in any given population of sperm cells ⁵ the same man. However, from our experience, we have had a couple who, out of 15 embryos had, two abnormal and 12 female embryos that were automatic carriers of an X-linked disease because the male partner was a carrier (his X chromosome).
The male partner was advised to detoxify at the MART Life Detox Clinic and was also given some orthomolecular supplements for 30-60 days. After that, we repeated the IVF cycle was repeated at Medical Art Center, and PGT-M was performed on the resulting embryos for male sex selection since only the male embryos would be free from the X-linked disease the man carries.
The outcome was surprising as the resulting embryos had more male embryos than the previous PGT. As a follow-up, we advise men going through PGT to take orthomolecular supplements. If possible, go through detoxification to get rid of toxins, heavy metals, and pathogens that can affect sperm DNA fragmentation, and more.
PGT-SR tests for chromosomal structural abnormalities by assessing each chromosome.
It is used for chromosomal diseases in which an advanced technique called fluorescent in-situ hybridization can identify a variety of chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations, inversions, and deletions. Because earlier conceptions resulted in chromosomally imbalanced embryos that spontaneously miscarried, some parents may never have been able to produce a successful pregnancy without PGT. In a particular case the male twin boys happened after three attempts of cleansing.
PGT-A for aneuploidy tests for embryos with abnormal numbers of chromosomes.
Humans have 46 chromosomes in total, 23 from each parent. Aneuploidy occurs when there is an increase or decrease in chromosome numbers. Aneuploidy is to blame for the majority of early pregnancy losses. The probability of first and second-trimester loss is significantly lowered since only chromosomally normal embryos are placed into the uterus.
The following are examples of primary candidates for PGT-A:
Women who are near or in their menopausal age
Couples who have had previous miscarriages
Couples who have had many IVF failures
As women get older, their likelihood of having aneuploidy offspring rises. Because the chromosomes in the egg are less likely to split appropriately, the embryo may have an additional or missing chromosome. In moms aged 35-39 years, the rate of aneuploidy in embryos is greater than 20%, while in mothers aged 40 years or beyond, it is about 40%. Aneuploidy embryo is less likely to be carried to term and will most likely be miscarried, some even before pregnancy is discovered or confirmed. As a result, determining the chromosomal makeup of embryos using PGT improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy and lowers the number of pregnancy losses and damaged offspring.
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more pregnancy losses in a row before the 20th week of pregnancy. The reason is often unknown, but it could be related to fetal or uterine disorders. 50-80 per cent of aborted embryos have chromosomal abnormalities, and couples with RPL have a higher percentage of aneuploidy embryos than patients without RPL. The use of PGT-A increases the chances of full-term delivery, provided there are no uterine disorders. PGT-A is also beneficial to a subset of patients whose cytogenetic analysis has revealed an aberrant conception.
Three or more failed IVF treatments involving high-quality embryos are usually considered recurrent implantation failure (RIF).
This patient group appears to have a higher number of chromosomally defective embryos, according to evidence. That means this may be going on in couples trying to conceive through natural conception. PGT-A select chromosomally normal embryos for transfer after detoxification. It has helped clear the male reproductive system of the partner of other abnormalities.
Pre-implantation HLA matching is one of the emerging indications for PGT. This technique can be used to rule out the presence of a genetic illness and identify a possible donor for stem cell or bone marrow transplantation in children with recessive diseases like thalassemias or acquired cancers like leukemia. We use the procedure to prevent the birth of a child with sickle cell anaemia in the Medical Art Center.
Pre-implantation genetic testing is an alternative to conventional post-conception diagnostic techniques (such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling), frequently followed by the laborious option of terminating a pregnancy if the results are unfavorable. Currently, PGT is the only method for preventing a high chance of having a child with a genetic condition before implantation. It is an appealing method of preventing heritable genetic disorder, removing the difficulty of terminating a baby due to an unfavorable prenatal diagnosis. When a couple is in danger of passing on a known congenital disability to their children, we recommend PGT. Only healthy and normal embryos are implanted into the mother’s uterus, lowering the danger of a genetic defect and preventing late pregnancy termination (after positive prenatal diagnosis).
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